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Posts Tagged ‘Dead Sea Scrolls

The Chosen One (4) … so who is he?

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Fragment from Cave 4

Fragment from Cave 4

In his book: The Jesus Dynasty, Professor James D Tabor joins the increasing number of scholars who assert that Jesus was far more human than the church would lead you to believe. Prof. Tabor also reminds us of the fact, universally accepted now, that first century Jews were expecting at least two major prophets.

We continue the search for the identity of the last of these major prophets; and put to the test the proposition that he is no other than the prophet of Islam, Muhammad, peace be upon him.

Having looked at the physical description of the chosen prophet, in some detail  in previous posts; we continue to analyse these fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls entitled:  “The Chosen One”  or “المصطفى“, for further information on the historical and circumstantial attributes of the expected prophet.

When you carefully read fragment 4Q536 below, you will notice that there is a distinction made between the (words of the Prophet, said to contain great wisdom) and the (words of God that the Prophet will write in a Book that will not decay.)

This is highly significant, because Islamic tradition has always maintained a clear distinction between the words of Prophet Muhammad (ص), referred to as “Hadith” and the words of God or “The Quran” which Muslims consider to be the literal and pure words of God.

Such a distinction can only be found in Islamic scriptures, and is unparalleled, neither in Christianity nor Judaism, for the Old and New testaments do not have clear dividing lines between the words of God and those of the prophets or even the writers and narrators of stories therein.

Fragment 4Q536:

8 he made […] | that you are afraid of […] 10 he will strengthen its concealment at the end of your powers. His possessions […] | and he will not die in the days of evil. And his words will contain great wisdom. I will praise you […] | is sentenced to death. Who will write the words of God in a book that will not decay? And my sayings […] |You will come to me and in the time of evil he will know you forever. A man who […] your servants, […] sons […]

I have coloured 4 passages that contain attributes of the Chosen One:

  1. He will not die in the days of evil, so this possibly excludes Jesus -as known in Christian theology- from being the subject of the document. Muhammad (peace upon him) triumphed against his enemies and did not die until his mission was completed.
  2. Who will write the words of God in a book that will not decay: Of all the Books claiming to be a revelation from God, the Quran stands out as the only book that : 1- Claims to be the literal word of God, and 2: has been truly preserved and did not decay in transmission. Whilst there is plenty of evidence of the corruption of transmission of the Bible and other sacred books, similar claims made about the Quran are but speculations and suppositions.
  3. His word will contain great wisdom: Muslims have cherished the words of the Prophet and many volumes have been written analysing every word, description, action, story about Muhammad () and Hadith became a large subject of Islamic Scholarship to extract wisdom from the noble mouth of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.
  4. I will praise you: The very name of the prophet, “Muhammad“, actually means  “Praised“,  this in addition to God directly praising the Prophet in many verses of the Quran, as in [Quran 68:4] And verily, you are on an exalted character.

In summary, we find the two fragments 4Q534 and 4Q536 provide compelling evidence that Prophet Muhammad, peace upon him is indeed the Chosen One of God:

We have the physical evidence of the moles on his back and the colour of his hair. We have a prophecy that he will defeat his enemies, that his message will reach the whole world and last until the end of time. We have evidence about him being unlearned and then suddenly acquires knowledge about the holy books, angels and prophets. Evidence of his great wisdom, that his message will be universal and directed to all the people; and that he writes-  separately- the words of God in a book.

I end this post with a little challenge: Can you find any individual in history who fits the description given in fragments 4Q534 and 4Q536 better than Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam?

Related Posts:

Written by Rasheed Gadir

October 27, 2008 at 3:50 pm

The Dead Sea Scrolls: On The Prophet and His Detractors ….

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I am going to discuss two fragments from the Dead Sea Scrolls in response to the latest media frenzy surrounding the release of a Dutch film, claiming to be anti-Quran, but before I begin, I have a simple message to Muslims around the world: Do NOT grieve, or lose your composure, for attacks on our faith and our Prophet have been the norm rather than the exception for most of the past 14 centuries. They have failed in the past and they WILL fail again. As far as I am concerned, these vicious and deliberately misleading attacks are the clearest Sign of the Truth of Islam.

Ironically, these actions are squarely condemned and predicted to fail by none other than the oldest Jewish texts known to exist: The Dead Sea Scrolls, written more than 2000 years ago. I will introduce here, two fragments from the scrolls that I believe demonstrate my point.

The first fragment is the The Self Glorification Hymn, 4Q491c , from the Dead Sea Scrolls cave 4 collection. This fragment speaks of a future Prophetical figure, a Messenger of God that is abused and insulted like no other:

Who shall [experience] troubles like me? And who is like me [in bearing] evil? I have not been taught, but no teaching compares i7[ with my teaching]. Who then shall attack me when [I] ope[n my mouth]? Who can endure the utterance of my lips? Who shall arraign me and compare with my judgment i3[ . . . Fo]r I am reck[oned] with the gods, [and] my glory with that of the sons of the King. Neither [refined go]ld, nor the gold of Ophir 19[ . . . ] (4Q491C -Dead Sea Scrolls – cave 4)
[source: Mystical Texts By Philip Alexander ]

The second fragment, [Levi Apocryphon, Fragment 4Q451.9- cave 4 Dead Sea Scrolls], is even more explicit. You may be forgiven for thinking it was written by a contemporary writer:

He will atone for all the children of his generation, and he will be sent to all the children of his people. His word is like a word of heaven, and his teaching is in accordance with the will of Elohim. His eternal sun will shine, and his light will be kindled in all corners of the earth, and it will shine on the darkness. Then the darkness will pass away from the earth and thick darkness from the dry land. They will speak many words against him, and they will invent many lies and fictions against him and shameful things about him. Evil will overthrow his generation…His situation will be one of lying and violence and the people will go astray in his days, and be confounded (4Q451.9 Dead Sea Scrolls)
[source: King, Priest and Prophet By Geza G. Xeravits- pages 111-112]

Fragment 4Q491c describe the Prophet as ‘someone who has not been taught’, a well documented attribute of Prophet Muhammad [PBUH]. It also alludes to the background of the Prophet, who came from an un-learned nation. The second fragment [4Q451.9], tells how the teachings of the Prophet will cause “darkness to disappear from ‘DRY LAND’“, which can also be translated ‘The Desert’. Both Fragments indicate that the main strength of the Prophet are ‘his words‘, described as ‘ like the words of heaven ‘. This is one more feature that can only apply to Prophet Muhammad (ص). Unlike Moses and Jesus who performed physical miracles to their audiences, Muhammad’s (ص) main miracles is The Quran, The words of God.

Now, if you think about it calmly, no individual in history has been subjected to a barrage of insults or a sustained campaign of hate as did the prophet of Islam, Muhammad, the Messenger of God, (ص). From the dawn of Islam, when the prophet (ص) declared to the Arab polytheists that he was sent to them by God to end idolatry, the prophet was faced with unprecedented enmity from his own people. He endured 13 years of hostility, ridicule and sanctions in Mecca before being forced to leave his birthplace when the Meccans plotted to murder him, and he emigrated to Madina.

This emigration known as ‘Hijra’ was such an important event, it has been designated the base year of the Muslim Calendar. For the next 10 years, the Prophet was surrounded by enemies bent on extinguishing the new religion, but God delivered his promise to the prophet (ص), and he prevailed over his enemies, conquering Mecca in the 9th year AH. When the prophet (ص) performed the Farewell Pilgrimage in year 10 AH, he was joined by 100,000 Muslims.

The religion that started with one person 23 years earlier, has entered all the corners of Arabia, and was primed to spread to the world. Today, there are about 1.5 billions Muslims in the world.

One thing has never changed: The hostility shown to the prophet (ص). His enemies have always been extreme in their animosity.

The latest manifestation of this hatred and hostility can be seen right now: Danish Cartoons, Fitna, the Dutch Anti- Islam film, numerous articles in the printed press as well as hundreds of Websites and blogs dedicated to viciously attacking the prophet of Islam, Muhammad (ص).

In the middle ages, stories were invented in Europe about the prophet that described how he burnt children alive and ate them. The teaching of Islam were sometimes portrayed as borrowed material that Muhammad learned from Christians and Jews. The same prophet was accused by the same people, of reviving a pagan religion that he developed from old legends in Arabia. You can often find conflicting and contradictory statements about the prophet in the same page.

I have read an article which implied that Muhammad copied stories from old scriptures and books and included them in the Quran. The list comprised Old Jewish writing, apocrypha, Greek legends, the Hebrew Bible, The Talmud amongst others. What is striking about this claim is that the list is so extensive, it is absolutely impossible for an illiterate person living in Mecca in the sixth century to have found and seen all of them, let alone study and extract stories from them. The author conveniently ignore the fact the Quranic narration is almost always substantially different from the alleged sources. Even today, with the all the advances in communication and the availability of resources like the internet, libraries, and printing it would still be extremely difficult for someone to go through half of these books. Remember that the prophet (ص), was leading an emerging state, he was the preident, the supreme cour, the leader of the army, and the teacher. Where did he find the time to read those books that are written in different languages, and that are hard to come by even today!!

Of course I acknowledge that other Prophets have suffered too, but none like Muhammad (ص), and none has suffered for such a long period. The Prophet has continued to be the target of ‘vicious things said about him’ to this very moment.

Allah told the Prophet (and us ) in the Quran – Chapter 3:

[Quran 3:186] Ye shall certainly be tried and tested in your possessions and in your personal selves; and ye shall certainly Hear much that will grieve you, from those who received the Book before you and from those who worship many gods. But if ye persevere patiently, and guard against evil,-then that will be a determining factor in all affairs.

The Chosen One (3)… more evidence

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Still studying fragment 4Q534 (The Elect or المصطفى) from the Dead Sea Scrolls, cave 4. In my first and second post on the fragment, I put forward explained that the physical description of the awaited prophet matched what we knew about prophet Muhammad (ص).

Here, we will look at more passages that also describe the awaited chosen prophet . It is astonishing how the description of attributes of the prophet and events surrounding his life, closely match the life and attributes of prophet Muhammad (ص).

While he is young, he will be like …[…like] someone who knows nothing, until he 5knows the three Books […] |` Then he will gain wisdom and learn understanding […] visions will come to him while he is on his knees. | And with his father and ancestors […] life and old age. He will have wisdom and discretion | and he will know the secrets of man. His wisdom will reach out to everyone and he will know the secrets of all living things. | All of their plans against him will fail, and his rule over all things will be great. 10[…] his plans will succeed because he is the one picked by God. His birth and the breath of his spirit […] and his plans will last forever. […].

Prophet Muhammad (ص) could not read nor write, he, therefore, closely resembles the description of the scrolls: “While he is young he will be like …[…like] someone who knows nothing, until he 5knows the three Books

The three books mentioned in the scrolls are most probably a reference to the Books of Moses and Abraham in addition to the Quran. Allah tells us in the Quran:

[Quran 87:18-19] Lo! This is in the former scrolls.[18] The Books of Abraham and Moses.[19]

The fragment then says ” visions will come to him while he is on his knees.”. This again is a perfect match to what we know about the first encounter between prophet Muhammad (ص) and the Arch angel Gabriel:

Imam Bukhari wrote in his “Authentic Sayings”:

I was told by Yahia, son of Bikir, he said: Iwas told by Laith, quoting Okail, who quoted Ibn Shihab, he quoted Orwa, son of Al Zubair, who cuoted Aisha (the mother of the faithful believers), she said:

The commencement of the Divine Inspiration to Allah’s Messenger was in the form of good dreams which came true like bright day light, and then the love of seclusion was bestowed upon him. He used to go in seclusion in the cave of Hira where he used to worship continuously for many days before his desire to see his family. He used to take with him the journey food for the stay and then come back to (his wife) Khadija to take his food like-wise again till suddenly the Truth descended upon him while he was in the cave of Hira. The angel came to him and asked him to read. The Prophet replied, “I do not know how to read.

Read Also from this series: The Chosen One (1), The Chosen One (2), The Chosen One (4)

The Chosen One (2) …what is the evidence?

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Can we use fragment 4QElect (ك4المصطفى) , from the Dead Sea Scrolls, to identify Muhammad (ص) as the Chosen One, The Prophet described in the Dead Sea Scrolls? The Qumran community were expecting this prophet and many of the documents and fragments discovered in the desert attested to this fact.

In my previous post: (The Chosen One in the Dead Sea Scrolls and The Quran), I reproduced two fragments and suggested that both perfectly fit the description of the prophet of Islam, Muhammad, peace and blessings upon him.


  1. A Companion is someone who believed AND met/ saw the Prophet [PBUH]
  2. A Follower is someone who never met the Prophet [PBUH], but has met with a companion
  3. A Contiguous Narration is one where all the narrators are known to have lived at the same time and/ or known to have met each other.

The Fragment 4QElect=4Q534:

Let us look at the first paragraph from fragment 4Q534:

{[…] of his hand, two […] a mark. His | hair will be red and he will have moles on […] | and small marks in his thighs. }

The paragraph gives two important physical features of the expected prophet:

  1. The prophet is described as having red hair
  2. The prophet has moles somewhere in his body

Two features which were well documented about the beloved prophet, Muhammad, peace and blessings are upon him:

The Evidence:

(I) The Moles on Prophet Muhammad’s shoulder [PBUH]:

There are several authentic, contiguous accounts of the prophet peace and blessing upon him which describe moles between his shoulders.

Imam Ahmed said in his “Supported Sayings”:

I was told by Hashim son of Al-Qasim and Aswad son of Amir, both said they were told by Shareek, quoting Asim quoting Abdallah, Son of Sarjas, he said:

I saw the Prophet peace and blessings upon him, I visited him, and ate from his food and drank from his drink and I saw the seal of prophethood. Hashim said:{they are} black moles on his left shoulders.”


(II) The Red Hair of Prophet Muhammad [PBUH]:

A) Imam Muslim wrote in his book, “The Authentic”, quoting the Companion Jabir, son of Abdallah, that the Prophet [PBUH}, after performing the ‘farewell Hajj’, shaved his head and distributed all the hear to his followers.
Several of the Followers of the companions and others from subsequent generations testified to have seen some of the Prophet’s hair.

B) Those Followers described the Prophet’s hair they saw as red, They thought the color as caused by the use of Henna and Katam (Plant leaves mixture used for dying hair)

Imam Bukhari wrote in his book: Athentic Sayings, Hadith (Saying No 5340) said:

Ibn Bakir told me, he said: I was told by Al-Laith, he heard it from Saeed Ibn Abi Hilal, he heard it from Rabi’a, son of Abi Abdel Rahman, he said: I heard Anas, son of Malik describe the Prophet [PBUH], he said:

“The Prophet was neither conspicuously tall, nor short; neither, very white, nor tawny. His hair was neither much curled, nor very straight. Allah sent him at the age of forty, he stayed for ten years in Mecca and for ten more years in Medina. Allah took him unto Him at the age of sixty and he scarcely had ten white hairs on his head and in his beard.” Rabi’a said: I then saw some of the Prophet’s hair, and it was red, I asked about it and was told it was because of perfume.”

Imam Ahmed and Imam Bukhari wrote in their books, both on the authority of Othman, son of Abdallah,

Ahmed said: “ I was told by by Hashim son of Al-Qasim, he said: I was told by Abu Moaiwa (Shaiban), quoting Othman son of Aballah, he said:

We went to Um Salamah (The Prophet’s wife) and she showed us some of the Prophet’s hair, It was red from Henna and Katam.”

C) However, a major companion, Anas, son of Malik, was quoted by Imam Muslim in an authentic, contiguous narration that the prophet did NOT dye his hair.

Anas was a young boy who lived with the prophet as his domestic assistant and was one the companions who knew the prophet (PBUH) very closely, therefore Anas’ words carry significant weight.

Imam Muslim wrote in “The Authentic Sayings”:

I was told by Mohamed son of Bakar son of Al Ryan, he said: I was told by Ismail son of Zacharia, he quoted Asim Al Ahwal, he quoted (Mohamed) son of Sirin, he said:

“I asked Anas, son of Malik if the Messenger of Allah [BUH] dyed his hair, he (Anas) replied: ‘He did not get to that, he had a few white hairs in his beard’, he (Mohamed son of Sirin) said, then I asked: Did Abu Bakr?: Anas said: ‘Yes with Henna and Katam.’ “

We can conclude that:

  1. Prophet Muhammad distributed his hair to his companions only a few months before his death.
  2. The Prophet hair was indeed red, a realisation of another description of the Chosen One in the fragment of the Dead Sea Scroll.

Read Also from this series: The Chosen One (1), The Chosen One (3), The Chosen One (4)

The Chosen One in the dead sea scrolls

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If you are interested in religion, then these fragments from the Dead Sea scrolls should stir your curiosity. They are amongst the few scrolls available to the English language reader, which speak about an important prophet, described as ‘The Chosen One’ or ‘The Elect One’.

So, Who is this Chosen One mentioned in the Dead Sea Scrolls? Could it be Jesus or Noah?

The fragments are designated: 4Qelect=4Q534 and 4QarNC=4Q535-6. They were translated and published in English by Xeravits and Geza G, paraphrased by Nick Flangian.

I have asked myself the questions above and I know of only one person in history that fits the description, almost perfectly: prophet Muhammad, pbuh, the messenger of Islam.

I have marked as bold important phrases that have striking similarities to what we know about the prophet, peace and blessings are upon him.

I invite my readers to read the fragments carefully, and try to come with their own answers about the identity of the prophet.

In this post, I will only reproduce the paraphrased scrolls, and leave their discussion for the next post.

[…] of his hand, two […] a mark. His | hair will be red and he will have moles on […] | and small marks in his thighs. [And after t]wo years, he will know one thing from another. | While he is young, he will be like …[…like] someone who knows nothing, until he 5knows the three Books […] | Then he will gain wisdom and learn understanding […] visions will come to him while he is on his knees. | And with his father and ancestors […] life and old age. He will have wisdom and discretion | and he will know the secrets of man. His wisdom will reach out to everyone and he will know the secrets of all living things. | All of their plans against him will fail, and his rule over all things will be great. 10[…] his plans will succeed because he is the one picked by God. His birth and the breath of his spirit […] and his plans will last forever. […]

1[…] which […] fell in ancient times. The sons of the pit […] | […] evil. The spot […] | […] | […] in order to go […] […] flesh […] | […] | and his breathing out […] | forever […] | 10 | […] | and the cities […] | and they will destroy […] | The waters will stop […] they will destroy […] from the heights. They will all come […] […] | […] and they will all be destroyed. His work will be like that of the Watcher. | Instead of his voice […] he will establish his foundation on him. His sin and his error | […] the Holy One and the Watchers […] to say | they will speak against him […].

The second fragment is even more interseting:


frag 1 Col 1
[…] you will be […] | […] he will make you think of the holy angels […] | […] the lights will be revealed to him | […] all of his teachings […] the wisdom of humanity, and every wise man | […] in the region he will be great | […] humanity will be troubled | […] he will share God’s secrets | […] he will understand God’s mysteries […]

frag 1 Col 2

8 he made […] | that you are afraid of […] 10 he will strengthen its concealment at the end of your powers. His possessions […] | and he will not die in the days of evil. And his words will contain great wisdom. I will praise you […] | is sentenced to death. Who will write the words of God in a book that will not decay? And my sayings […] |You will come to me and in the time of evil he will know you forever. A man who […] your servants, […] sons […]

original paraphrase by Nick Flangian

Read from this series: The Chosen One (2), The Chosen One (3), The Chosen One (4)

Written by Rasheed Gadir

January 9, 2008 at 4:36 pm

Who is The Teacher of Righteousness mentioned in the Dead Sea Scrolls?

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by Rasheed,

The Teacher of Righteousness is an ecstalogical (End of Time) figure from the Dead Sea Scrolls. Scholars and researchers are baffled about his identity. Geza Vermes, a prominent scholar who was one of the few scholars working on the Dead Sea Scrolls said: “Unfortunately, as the most vital topic of all, the question of the identity of the Teacher of Righteousness, we can be nothing like as clear”. Most western scholars assume the Teacher to be a Jewish person. Not enough thought is given to the possibility that the Teacher could be a reference to somebody outside the Jewish nation.

The Quran and Muslim tradition have maintained that prophet Muhammad was foretold in the Torah and other Jewish and Christian scripture, and that, a great effort was made by centrers of power to conceal his identity as the final prophet sent by GOD.

The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls was a promising development, but the scrolls were suppressed for almost 60 years, and were made available only to a small number of scholars (Read the excellent investigation by Michael Baigen in his book “The Dead Sea Scroll Deception“) .

As a Muslim, I do expect to find some references to prophet Muhammad in the Torah. I will not be surprised if there were prophecies about Jesus in the Torah, for he was a prophet too as far as I am concerned. However I find some prophecies in the Torah are easier to understand if they were taken as a reference to Muhammad than is the case with Jesus. Amongst the later, are prophecies about The Teacher of Righteousness.

This article, by biblical researcher Sarah Klitenic, illustrates the problems surrounding the identification of the T.o.R.I will put here a few pointers to explain why I believe the Teacher of Righteousness is quite possibly a reference to prophet Muhammad pbuh.

In the article, the author states her belief that the Teacher is a prophet, she wrote:

1-“He [The Teacher] is never explicitly referred to as prophet, but descriptions, context, and tradition lead one to believe that the Teacher is in fact a prophet”.

2-The well is the Law, and those who dug it were the converts of Israel who went out of the land of Judah to sojourn in the land of Damascus….The Staff is the Interpreter of the Law of whom Isaiah said, He makes a tool for His work; and the nobles of the peoples are those who come to dig the well with the staffs with which the staff ordained that they should walk in all age of wickedness- and without them they shall find nothing- #until he comes who shall teach righteousness at the end of days”

quote 2 above, is from the text of Scroll [1 QH IV, 8-10], which the author uses and summarises as:

3- “The Teacher himself is in no way a messianic figure. He will not return at the endtime, but he does anticipate the arrival of his eschatological counterpart.”

Now it is a well known fact that prophet Muhammad (pbuh) has anticipated the second coming of Jesus (pbuh), and that when comes he will reveal to his followers that Muhammad (pbuh was indeed the Final Messenger and Seal of the prophets of GOD.) In the Book of Bukhari, which is the highest authority in documenting the Sayings [Hadith] of the Prophet (pbuh), it is written:Allah’s Messenger said “How will you be when the son of Mariam (i.e. Jesus) descends amongst you and he will judge people by the Law of the Quran and not by the law of Gospel”

The author then proceeds to confirm that:

4- “It should also be made clear in the initial stages of this inquiry what the Teacher of Righteousness is not: he is not John the Baptist, he is not Jesus Christ.”

The author, next, quotes from the Scrolls again, Pesher (4QpPs 1-10 iii 15):

5- “he steps of the man are confirmed by the Lord and He delights in all his ways; though [he stumbles, he shall not fall, for the Lord shall support his hand]”

6- “The Teacher is similar to the other prophets both in his manner of interpretation and the reasons behind his revelation. In the following passage, the Teacher is similar to the prophets in a number of ways: And they, teachers of lies and seers of falsehood,have schemed against me a devilish scheme,to exchange the Law engraved on my hear to Theefor the smooth things (which they speak) to Thy people.And they withhold from the thirsty the drink of Knowledge, and assuage their thirst with vinegar…(1 QH IV, 8-10)Like the Staff, the Teacher is needed by those thirsty for knowledge. In this passage, we also see that the Teacher’s righteousness is not fully human; because the Law is engraved on his heart by God, his interpretation of the Law is a divine interpretation.41 God has given the Teacher the power to ‘interpret all the words of his servants the prophets’42 and then God feeds the Teacher His words by which to prophesy.Here, the relationship between God and the Teacher is inextricably close; like the prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel, the Teacher cannot escape his righteousness, despite the distress it causes him

How does these attributes of the Teacher compare with what is known about Muhammad (pbuh). The following verses from the Quran may provide answers:

{87:06-07}: “WE shall make you recite so you shalt not forget * Except what Allah please. Surely HE knows the manifest, and what is hidden” {87 Al-A’laa}


سورة الأعلى: سَنُقْرِؤُكَ فَلَا تَنسَى 6 إِلَّا مَا شَاء اللَّهُ إِنَّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْجَهْرَ وَمَا يَخْفَى 7


{26:192-194}: ” And lo! it is a revelation of the Lord of the Worlds * Which the True Spirit has brought down * Upon your heart, that you may be (one) of the warners” {26: Al-Shu’raa (Poets)}


سورة الشعراء : وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ 192 نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الْأَمِينُ 193 عَلَى قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنذِرِينَ 194


{53:1-5} : “By the star when it sets * Your companion (Muhammad) errs not, nor does he deviate. * Nor does he speak out of desire * It is naught but revelation that is revealed * One Mighty in Power has taught him” {53: Al-Najm (The Star)}


سورة النجم 1-5وَالنَّجْمِ إِذَا هَوَى {1} مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَى {2}وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى {3}إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَى {4} عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ ْالقُوَى 5


{15: 97-99}: “And WE know indeed that your breast straitens at what they say * glorify the praises of your Lord and be of those who prostrate themselves (to Him) * And serve thy Lord, until there comes to you that which is certain” {15: AL-Hijr}


سورة الحجر : وَلَقَدْ نَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ يَضِيقُ صَدْرُكَ بِمَا يَقُولُونَ 97فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَ 98وَاعْبُدْ رَبَّكَ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَكَ الْيَقِينُ 99


{3:69-71}: “A party of the People of the Scripture long to make you go astray; and they make none to go astray except themselves, but they perceive not. * People of the Scripture! Why disbelieve ye in the revelations of Allah, when ye (yourselves) bear witness (to their truth)? * O People of the Scripture! Why confound ye truth with falsehood and knowingly conceal the truth?” {3: Aal-Imran (Family of Imran)}


آل عمران 69 -71: وَدَّت طَّآئِفَةٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَوْ يُضِلُّونَكُمْ وَمَا يُضِلُّونَ إِلاَّ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لِمَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللّهِ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ *يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لِمَ تَلْبِسُونَ الْحَقَّ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتَكْتُمُونَ الْحَقَّ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُون

َ *

It is clear that Muhammad pbuh, satisfies all of the attributes of the Teacher described by the author in 6 above, except her assertion that the Teacher is not fully human.

I found nothing in the text of the Pesher quoted by the author, to indicate that the Teacher is not fully human !The book known as ‘2 Esdras’ from the Jewish Apocrypha, found amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls has two prophecies which clearly speak of GOD’s favour moving from Israel to another nation, please see my post on the subject

Written by Rasheed Gadir

November 6, 2007 at 4:29 pm

Mary, mother of Jesus or sister of Aaron?

with 20 comments

by Rasheed,

Question: How did the Quran reveal the story of the birth of Jesus so accurately?

The Quran depicts the scene of the virgin Maryam (Mary) bringing her new born baby, Jesus, to meet her people and they reprmanded her saying [Chapter 19: Mariam]:

[19:23] And the pangs of childbirth drove her unto the trunk of the palm-tree. She said: Oh, would that I had died ere this and had become a thing of naught, forgotten!
[19:24] Then (one) cried unto her from below her, saying: Grieve not! Thy Lord hath placed a rivulet beneath thee,
[19:25] And shake the trunk of the palm-tree toward thee, thou wilt cause ripe dates to fall upon thee.
[19:26] So eat and drink and be consoled. And if thou meetest any mortal, say: Lo! I have vowed a fast unto the Beneficent, and may not speak this day to any mortal.

[19:27] Then she brought him to her own folk, carrying him. They said: O Mary! Thou hast come with a strange thing,

[19:28] O sister of Aaron! Thy father was not a wicked man, nor was thy mother a harlot. [19:29] But she pointed to him. They said: How should we speak to one who was a child in the cradle?[19:30] He [Baby Jesus] said: Surely I am a servant of Allah; He has given me the Book and made me a prophet;[19:31] And He has made me blessed wherever I may be, and He has enjoined on me prayer and almsgiving so long as I live;[19:32] And dutiful to my mother, and He has not made me insolent, unblessed;[19:33] And peace on me on the day I was born, and on the day I die, and on the day I am raised to life.

(The Quran, 19: 23-33, Maryam)

Some Western writers and orientalist critics of Islam suggested that this was a huge error on the part of Prophet Muhammad, claiming that he confused Maryam dughter of Imran and the sister of Moses, with Maryam daughter of Imran, the mother of Jesus. Peace be upon them all.

However, recent discoveries and translation of the ancient Dead Sea Scrolls, completely vindicate the Quranic narration of the story and explains why Mary (Maryam) was addressed as “sister of Aaron” …..

The Dead Sea Scrolls reveal that the Jewish communities at that time , referred to their religous leaders as the ‘Priests of Aaron’. It is also revealed that they were expecting the arrival of TWO messiahs, known as the Messiah of Aaron and the Messiah of David (see scroll 1QS IX 9–11).
Another quotation from Dead Sea Scrolls (Community Rules Document) spoke of:

“In the society of the Yahad there shall be twelve laymen and three priests who are blameless in the light of all that has been revealed from the whole Law, so as to work truth, righteousness, justice, living-kindness, and humility, one with another. They are to preserve faith in the land with self-control and a broken spirit, atoning for sin by working justice and suffering affliction. They are to walk with all by the standard of truth and the dictates proper to the age.”
“When such men as these come to be in Israel, then shall the society of the Yahad truly be established, an ‘eternal planing’ (Jubilees 16:26), a temple for Israel, and – mystery! – a Holy of Holies for Aaron; true witnesses to justice, chosen by God’s will to atone for the land and to recompense the wicked their due. They will be ‘the tested wall, the precious cornerstone’ (Isa. 28:16) whose foundations shall neither be shaken nor swayed, a fortress, a Holy of Holies for Aaron, all of them knowing the Covenant of Justice and thereby offering a sweet savor. They shall be a blameless and true house in Israel, ‘upholding the covenant of eternal statutes. They shall be an acceptable sacrifice, atoning for the land and ringing in the verdict against evil, so that perversity ceases to exist.”

– Community Rule 1QS 8.1-10

I will also quote the Damascus Document -from the Dead Scrolls- in another remarkable text:

“The Lord remembered the covenant of the ancients, and raised from Aaron men of understanding, and from Israel men of wisdom. He made His law known to them, and they dug the well. ‘The well that princes dug, that the nobles of the people delved with the staff’ (Numbers 21:18). – The ‘well’ is the Torah, its ‘diggers’ are the repentant ones of Israel who left the Land of Judah and dwelt in the Land of Damascus.”
– Damascus Document – Geniza manuscript A 6.2-5

Mary was descendant of a highly regarded religous family. Is it any wonder that she was addressed as “sister of Aaron”?. It seems to be the natural thing for those who knew her piety and zeal to the Law to address her in that way.

In fact, referring to Mary as sister of Aaron, is an amazing Quranic narration which prophet Muhammad (pbuh) could not have known without revelation, and is one remarkable demonstration of the fact that the Quran is indeed the revealed words of GOD, exalted.

Written by Rasheed Gadir

October 11, 2007 at 9:53 am