Hard Questions

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Archive for November 2007

A Muslim listening to a church father

with 5 comments

by Rasheed,

It was a fascinating and a captivating read, that which I found in an epistle attributed to Clement of Rome [30-100 A.D.]. Although the letter itself does not say who wrote it, and whether it was Clement or another person, Clement’s authorship is the prevailing view amongst Christian scholars.

In any case, and regardless of who wrote the letter, I found myself listening to a pious man, who clearly wanted to serve God, who distinguished between God the Most High, and Jesus the High Priest. He believed in resurrection of the Dead to be judged by God, believed in Heaven and Hell, preached righteousness and the avoidance of evil. I really enjoyed reading his words.
Well, … I think he was ….. a … Muslim.

Clement apparently thought of the Hebrew Bible as divine scriptures, he repeatedly referred to Sayings of Jesus [not fount in New Testament] as authoritative. Apostolic epistles were important to him but not divine nor inerrant. He mentions the Gospel but there is no mention of the documents known collectively today as the New Testament.

I have found very interesting quotations from this early church father, two passage that caught my attention. In the first passage he quotes Proverbs 1:23-31, but his quotation has a major difference from text found in all current translations:

Clement’s: “Behold, I will bring forth to you the words of My Spirit, and I will teach you My speech.”
(1 CLEMENT).

The current translations is:

[Prov. 1:23] “If you had responded to my rebuke, I would have poured out my heart to you and made my thoughts known to you.” (NIV)

The remaining verses (24-31) are very similar to current translations, and tell of God displeasure with the Israelites for disregarding his teaching and ill treating his prophets. The only major difference is in verse 23 above.

In the Hebrew Bible, The Spirit of God is that which comes to the Prophets.

Clement’s citation of the verse mentions the future coming of a prophet who shall teach the Speech of God, i.e. something very similar to The Quran. It is also very significant that the ONLY missing leaf from the manuscript of this letter is the one IMMEDIATELY after this quotation. Why is it significant, because this where we could have seen his comments on the verses he just cited. What a great loss this missing leaf represents.

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Written by Rasheed Gadir

November 26, 2007 at 7:14 pm

Constituents of the Muslim Faith- Part 1

with 11 comments

by Rasheed,

This is not a “My Book is better than yours” conversation. I am hoping, instead, for a mature and informative discussion of convergence and divergence of scriptures.

The decision on which scriptures to follow, is of course, a matter of personal choice and personal responsibility.

Following on from my previous post, I putting here, some of my thoughts and ideas about Islam. If you want to see Islam through a Muslim eye, then please read on.

In order of significance and authority, the primary sources of the Islamic faith are:

  1. The Quran
  2. Sayings of the Prophet, or ‘Hadith’
  3. Biography of the Prophet or ‘Seerah’

The Quran:

I, and All Muslims, believe the Quran to be the literal words of God as revealed to Prophet Muhammad through the angle Gabriel. The revelation took place over a period of approximately 23 years. The first revelation was in a cave in Mecca when the prophet was 40 years old, and last in Medina shortly before the prophet died aged 63.

The term word of God has a slightly different meaning from that adopted in Evangelical writings. Here literal means all the words were chosen by God and revealed to the prophet Muhammad who relayed them “exactly as he was taught by the angle Gabriel” .

I am hoping to write about the following aspects of Quran:

  1. Ownership of the Quran
  2. Style of the Text of The Quran
  3. Language
  4. The Teachings of the Quran
  5. Transmission of the Quran
  6. Can you show any Signs that this is a Book from God?
  7. Do you have answers to your critics?

As we progress in this discussion, other topics might also be added.

Ownership:
You may ask: What do you mean by saying “The Quran is composed of the literal words of God”? How is that different from the words of the Gospels?
Well, the word literal is very significant, because it means that no man has ever claimed to be the author of the Quran, not even prophet Muhammad. The book is understood to be God own words, chosen by HIM and delivered to the prophet whose only role was to recite them. He (the Prophet) has not claimed to have any input in the Book.

Style of the Text:
The Quran is narrated in the First person, with the speaker being God.
This is completely different from the Gospels, where it is made clear to the reader that, the writer is a particular person who is telling a story, or a person stating what he believes.

To demonstrate this difference, let us compare two verses concerned with the origin of the Quran and that of the Bible from the respective scriptures:

The Quran Chapter 39:

1- The revelation of the Scripture is from Allah, the Mighty, the Wise.
2- Lo! We have revealed the Scripture unto thee (Muhammad) with truth; so worship Allah, making religion pure for Him (only).
3- Surely pure religion is for Allah only. And those who choose protectors beside Him (say): We worship them only that they may bring us near unto Allah. Lo! Allah will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Lo! Allah guideth not him who is a liar, an ingrate.
4- If Allah had willed to choose a son, He could have chosen what He would of that which He hath created. Be He Glorified! He is Allah, the One, the Absolute

It is clear here and, throughout the whole book, that prophet Muhammad [pbuh] is not claiming to be the author of the text,

When you look at the beginning of the Gospel according to Luke, you will find a different definition of the text. You will find a text that belongs to Luke. It was Luke’s choice of words, and events to describe. He wrote:

The Gospel According to Luke [1:1-4]:

1- Many have undertaken to draw up an account of the things that have been fulfilled[a] among us,
2- just as they were handed down to us by those who from the first were eyewitnesses and servants of the word.
3- Therefore, since I myself have carefully investigated everything from the beginning, it seemed good also to me to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus,
4- so that you may know the certainty of the things you have been taught.

In fact, the canonical Gospels are similar in style and content to the third category of Scripture in Islam, i.e. “Biography of the Prophet” or “Seerah”,.

There are two non canonical Gospels (The Gospel of Thomas, and, the hypothetical “Lost Gospel Q”.) that have some similarities in style to the Muslims second category of Scriptures- “Hadith” -in that, they are composed of pure “Sayings of Jesus”.

Another feature of the Quran is that, it has no time-line. It navigates freely through time, and there is no chronological order. In many places, it refers to future events in the past tense, to imply certainty. There is no beginning or end to the book in the way you find in the Gospels or the Torah.

Other features of the Quran that are only demonstrable if you listen to the recitation in Arabic, for example the internal rhythm, the sound of the verse endings, the harmony of the sounds of individual letters and words. All of these features, are outside the scope of this discussion.

There follows a translation of the recitation in this video, from chapter 36:

[36:1] Ya Seen.
[36:2] I swear by the Quran full of wisdom
[36:3] Most surely you are of those sent
[36:4] On a straight path.
[36:5] A revelation of the Mighty, the Merciful.
[36:6] That you may warn a people whose fathers were not warned, so they are heedless.
[36:7] Certainly the word has proved true of most of them, so they do not believe.
[36:8] Surely We have placed chains on their necks, and these reach up to their chins, so they have their heads raised aloft.
[36:9] And We have set a bar before them and a bar behind them, and (thus) have covered them so that they see not.

[36:10] And it is alike to them whether you warn them or warn them not: they do not believe
[36:11] You can only warn him who follows the reminder and fears the Beneficent Allah in secret; so announce to him forgiveness and an rich reward.
[36:12] Lo! We it is Who bring the dead to life. We record that which they send before (them, and their footprints. And all things We have kept in a clear Register.

A final prayer:

“My God, Creator of heavens and earth, Knower of the seen and the unseen, I dedicate my work to you, seeking to earn your pleasure and hoping avoid your anger.

If I do well it is by your Grace alone, and if I erred, it is myself, and Satan that are to blame.”

Written by Rasheed Gadir

November 19, 2007 at 2:47 am

Muslim – Christian Dialogue: Where do we start?

with 4 comments

by Rasheed,

Do Muslims and Christians need to enhance their understanding of each other? If your answer is yes, then, how best can this be achieved?

The obvious answer is, by listening to each other. There is just no better way.

The keywords here are “each other”. If all we do is to listen to what we, and our co-religionists think about the other faith, then this is not listening to each other.

When I learn about Christianity, I consult Christian sources, ask Christian people, and read books written by Christians. I try to expose myself to a broad spectrum of opinion from within Christianity. I do not claim to be completely unbiased, but I try not to think about others in terms that they find alien to themselves.

Other questions might arise here including: What can this dialogue achieve? Which topics will be discussed, and who will decide on them?

I do not have ready answers to all the above questions. My own answer to the question about what can be achieved, is “better understanding“. I have no illusion that we will iron all our differences, or come to an agreement on any topic of discussion. My aim is simple, let us know our differences as best as we can, understand each other’s point of view, and maybe world will be a better place as a result; for It is my opinion that, Abrahamic faiths had a positive contribution on the history of Mankind.

When my friend Andrew asked me about Islamic scriptures, I promised him to share a few thoughts on the subject. This, I hope, will give him, and other readers, a better idea of what Muslims think of their faith.

Obviously these are questions that can take a lot of effort to answer, and of course, you can find various opinions and different answers to them. All I can promise, is to be candid, and frank.

I have finished writing my first post on Islam Sources. It is now undergoing final revision, and will appear here shortly.

Related Posts:
Christian – Muslim Q&A session

Written by Rasheed Gadir

November 17, 2007 at 1:01 am

Muslims belief in Jesus, Truth or Myth?

with 14 comments

by Rasheed,

Did you ask yourself, why Muslims do not retaliate by attacking or insulting Jesus, when their prophet Muhammad is Insulted? Please read on to find the answer,

I have heard it spoken before, read it in print, and finally received comments from a new blogging friend, Andrew. They all said: Muslims pretend to believe in Jesus whilst accuse him of being a liar!!

The comments I referred to above also:

  1. Argued that Jesus is the Only Way to God

  2. Claimed that ALL prophets of the Bible are Jewish, therefore Muhammad could not have been a true prophet

  3. Argued that, since Jesus said he is God, Muslims can not believe him to be a prophet, and reject his divinity at the same time. Basically, Muslims, accuse Jesus of being a liar!

I promised to write a post to follow up on the discussion, so here are my additional thoughts starting from the last point:

The claim that Muslims accuse Jesus of being a liar is an obvious distortion of reality. It is often made to discourage people from learning about Islam. It falls in the same category as the claim that Allah is different from the God of Abraham and Israel.

Let me make it absolutely CLEAR: No Muslim would dare accuse Jesus of being a liar, or detract -in any way- from his standing before God. We must respect and revere Jesus at all times. This is NOT done out of courtesy to Christians. We do it because our belief in, and respect of, ALL the prophets of God is an essential part of our faith and religion.

God says in the Quran:

“Say We believe in Allah and that which is revealed unto us and that which was revealed unto Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and that which was vouchsafed unto Moses and Jesus and the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and unto Him we have surrendered.” {The Quran, 3:84}

This verse from the Quran defines an essential part of the Muslim creed.

What I, and all Muslims believe is that Jesus himself did not claim to be God, neither was he begotten by God, but rather, he was created by God without a biological father, the same as Adam was created without neither a father nor a mother.

The Muslim position is that later errors in transmission, led to the corruption of Jesus’ story and his message, not that he lied.

God told us in the Quran that Jesus was human. There is a bulk of evidence from the canonical Gospels, early Christian writings and modern day Christian scholars works, which points to the non-reliability of the claim about Jesus divinity.

God says in the Quran, describing events in the Last Day, the Day of Judgment, where Jesus will explain that he never claimed to be God, It was a fabrication of which Jesus himself is innocent:

“*5-116: And when Allah saith: O Jesus, son of Mary! Didst thou say unto mankind: Take me and my mother for two gods beside Allah? he saith: Be glorified! It was not mine to utter that to which I had no right. If I used to say it, then Thou knewest it. Thou knowest what is in my mind, and I know not what is in Thy Mind. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Knower of Things Hidden.”

*5-117: I spake unto them only that which Thou commandedst me: Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. I was a witness of them while I dwelt among them, and when Thou tookest me Thou wast the Watcher over them. Thou art Witness over all things.

*5-118: If Thou punish them, lo! they are Thy slaves, and if Thou forgive them, Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Mighty, the Wise.
[5:116-118]

All the prophets of the Hebrew Bible taught a central message of the One, Unique, God, The same message was repeated by Muhammad. I am in no doubt that this was also the true message of Jesus.

It just doest not make sense to me that God had suddenly changed from being The One, Unique, and Supreme God of Abraham and Israel, to become of a triune Godhead. It does not make sense to me that God had a Son that Abraham and Moses did not know about! Does it make sense to you?

On the other points raised,

The definition of prophet is someone who receives revelations from God, and is commanded by God to deliver a message to his people, therefore, I would still say that it is not true that ALL prophets in the Torah were Jewish, Lot, Abraham, Noah and Enoch were all prophets and they were not Jewish.

Every prophet sent to his people, at a certain point in history, would rightly say that he is the only way to God. But this has always been understood to be valid only for the duration of his ministry (ministry is not necessarily confined to his life).

You see, people who rejected their prophets/ messengers were also rejected and punished by God, The people of Noah, The people of Lot, Pharaoh and his entourage all perished because they rejected their messengers.

Even Korah, mentioned in Numbers:16, and his followers, who were believers in God, but rejected Moses and rebelled against him received immediate punishment and were out of favour with God. in

A final word, I do not write this blog, in the believe that it will lead someone to change his mind, or convert to Islam. All I am hoping for is, to put across the Muslim point of view, as I understand it, to people who did not hear it directly from us.
If you are enlightened, then it is by God’s grace, if not, It is His Will.

Written by Rasheed Gadir

November 10, 2007 at 1:17 am

Who is The Teacher of Righteousness mentioned in the Dead Sea Scrolls?

with 12 comments

by Rasheed,

The Teacher of Righteousness is an ecstalogical (End of Time) figure from the Dead Sea Scrolls. Scholars and researchers are baffled about his identity. Geza Vermes, a prominent scholar who was one of the few scholars working on the Dead Sea Scrolls said: “Unfortunately, as the most vital topic of all, the question of the identity of the Teacher of Righteousness, we can be nothing like as clear”. Most western scholars assume the Teacher to be a Jewish person. Not enough thought is given to the possibility that the Teacher could be a reference to somebody outside the Jewish nation.

The Quran and Muslim tradition have maintained that prophet Muhammad was foretold in the Torah and other Jewish and Christian scripture, and that, a great effort was made by centrers of power to conceal his identity as the final prophet sent by GOD.

The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls was a promising development, but the scrolls were suppressed for almost 60 years, and were made available only to a small number of scholars (Read the excellent investigation by Michael Baigen in his book “The Dead Sea Scroll Deception“) .

As a Muslim, I do expect to find some references to prophet Muhammad in the Torah. I will not be surprised if there were prophecies about Jesus in the Torah, for he was a prophet too as far as I am concerned. However I find some prophecies in the Torah are easier to understand if they were taken as a reference to Muhammad than is the case with Jesus. Amongst the later, are prophecies about The Teacher of Righteousness.

This article, by biblical researcher Sarah Klitenic, illustrates the problems surrounding the identification of the T.o.R.I will put here a few pointers to explain why I believe the Teacher of Righteousness is quite possibly a reference to prophet Muhammad pbuh.

In the article, the author states her belief that the Teacher is a prophet, she wrote:

1-“He [The Teacher] is never explicitly referred to as prophet, but descriptions, context, and tradition lead one to believe that the Teacher is in fact a prophet”.

2-The well is the Law, and those who dug it were the converts of Israel who went out of the land of Judah to sojourn in the land of Damascus….The Staff is the Interpreter of the Law of whom Isaiah said, He makes a tool for His work; and the nobles of the peoples are those who come to dig the well with the staffs with which the staff ordained that they should walk in all age of wickedness- and without them they shall find nothing- #until he comes who shall teach righteousness at the end of days”

quote 2 above, is from the text of Scroll [1 QH IV, 8-10], which the author uses and summarises as:

3- “The Teacher himself is in no way a messianic figure. He will not return at the endtime, but he does anticipate the arrival of his eschatological counterpart.”

Now it is a well known fact that prophet Muhammad (pbuh) has anticipated the second coming of Jesus (pbuh), and that when comes he will reveal to his followers that Muhammad (pbuh was indeed the Final Messenger and Seal of the prophets of GOD.) In the Book of Bukhari, which is the highest authority in documenting the Sayings [Hadith] of the Prophet (pbuh), it is written:Allah’s Messenger said “How will you be when the son of Mariam (i.e. Jesus) descends amongst you and he will judge people by the Law of the Quran and not by the law of Gospel”

The author then proceeds to confirm that:

4- “It should also be made clear in the initial stages of this inquiry what the Teacher of Righteousness is not: he is not John the Baptist, he is not Jesus Christ.”

The author, next, quotes from the Scrolls again, Pesher (4QpPs 1-10 iii 15):

5- “he steps of the man are confirmed by the Lord and He delights in all his ways; though [he stumbles, he shall not fall, for the Lord shall support his hand]”

6- “The Teacher is similar to the other prophets both in his manner of interpretation and the reasons behind his revelation. In the following passage, the Teacher is similar to the prophets in a number of ways: And they, teachers of lies and seers of falsehood,have schemed against me a devilish scheme,to exchange the Law engraved on my hear to Theefor the smooth things (which they speak) to Thy people.And they withhold from the thirsty the drink of Knowledge, and assuage their thirst with vinegar…(1 QH IV, 8-10)Like the Staff, the Teacher is needed by those thirsty for knowledge. In this passage, we also see that the Teacher’s righteousness is not fully human; because the Law is engraved on his heart by God, his interpretation of the Law is a divine interpretation.41 God has given the Teacher the power to ‘interpret all the words of his servants the prophets’42 and then God feeds the Teacher His words by which to prophesy.Here, the relationship between God and the Teacher is inextricably close; like the prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel, the Teacher cannot escape his righteousness, despite the distress it causes him

How does these attributes of the Teacher compare with what is known about Muhammad (pbuh). The following verses from the Quran may provide answers:

{87:06-07}: “WE shall make you recite so you shalt not forget * Except what Allah please. Surely HE knows the manifest, and what is hidden” {87 Al-A’laa}

 

سورة الأعلى: سَنُقْرِؤُكَ فَلَا تَنسَى 6 إِلَّا مَا شَاء اللَّهُ إِنَّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْجَهْرَ وَمَا يَخْفَى 7

 

{26:192-194}: ” And lo! it is a revelation of the Lord of the Worlds * Which the True Spirit has brought down * Upon your heart, that you may be (one) of the warners” {26: Al-Shu’raa (Poets)}

 

سورة الشعراء : وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ 192 نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الْأَمِينُ 193 عَلَى قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنذِرِينَ 194

 

{53:1-5} : “By the star when it sets * Your companion (Muhammad) errs not, nor does he deviate. * Nor does he speak out of desire * It is naught but revelation that is revealed * One Mighty in Power has taught him” {53: Al-Najm (The Star)}

 

سورة النجم 1-5وَالنَّجْمِ إِذَا هَوَى {1} مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَى {2}وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى {3}إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَى {4} عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ ْالقُوَى 5

 

{15: 97-99}: “And WE know indeed that your breast straitens at what they say * glorify the praises of your Lord and be of those who prostrate themselves (to Him) * And serve thy Lord, until there comes to you that which is certain” {15: AL-Hijr}

 

سورة الحجر : وَلَقَدْ نَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ يَضِيقُ صَدْرُكَ بِمَا يَقُولُونَ 97فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَ 98وَاعْبُدْ رَبَّكَ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَكَ الْيَقِينُ 99

 

{3:69-71}: “A party of the People of the Scripture long to make you go astray; and they make none to go astray except themselves, but they perceive not. * People of the Scripture! Why disbelieve ye in the revelations of Allah, when ye (yourselves) bear witness (to their truth)? * O People of the Scripture! Why confound ye truth with falsehood and knowingly conceal the truth?” {3: Aal-Imran (Family of Imran)}

 

آل عمران 69 -71: وَدَّت طَّآئِفَةٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَوْ يُضِلُّونَكُمْ وَمَا يُضِلُّونَ إِلاَّ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لِمَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللّهِ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ *يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لِمَ تَلْبِسُونَ الْحَقَّ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتَكْتُمُونَ الْحَقَّ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُون

َ *

It is clear that Muhammad pbuh, satisfies all of the attributes of the Teacher described by the author in 6 above, except her assertion that the Teacher is not fully human.

I found nothing in the text of the Pesher quoted by the author, to indicate that the Teacher is not fully human !The book known as ‘2 Esdras’ from the Jewish Apocrypha, found amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls has two prophecies which clearly speak of GOD’s favour moving from Israel to another nation, please see my post on the subject

Written by Rasheed Gadir

November 6, 2007 at 4:29 pm

On Jewish Christianity, Islam, and the Gentiles

with 78 comments

by Rasheed,

Was Jesus sent to guide you? Was he sent to all nations? Did you feature in his original plan? These are important and a fundamental questions, that need to be considered carefully.

Let us start by laying down some bare facts:

During his ministry, Jesus himself, always maintained that he was sent to the Israelites and to the Israelites alone. There are numerous verses in the Bible that bear this fact. Examples are given below:

Matthew 15:24: “and he answering said, `I was not sent except to the lost sheep of the house of Israel”

Matthew 10: 5-7: “5 These twelve Jesus sent out with the following instructions: “Do not go among the Gentiles or enter any town of the Samaritans. 6Go rather to the lost sheep of Israel. 7As you go, preach this message: ‘The kingdom of heaven is near”

This of course does not mean that non Jews are completely excluded or prohibited from following Jesus, it simply means it was not part of his mission statement to invite all the nations to the path of God.

Jesus’ message required followers to worship the God of Abraham and observe the Law (Torah). We can say that Jesus was the last prophet of Israel.

Jesus disciples and students understood this fact perfectly well, and were therefore opposed to the efforts of Paul (Saul) to re-invent the message of Jesus, a message which they heard directly from Jesus himself. (Remember that Paul NEVER met nor believed Jesus during his ministry).

I believe that the incompatibility between Jesus message and message which Paul successfully advocated, is what drove scribes to add into the Gospels verses requiring the disciples to preach to the gentiles, verses like Mark 16:9-20 that are widely accepted now to be later addition to the Bible.

The Quran, on the other hand, has been very explicit from the beginning in defining the universal nature of of its message and that of Prophet Muhammad [pbuh].

The verse 158 in Chapter 7 {Al- A’raf} is concise, sharp, leaves no room for doubt and is beautiful:

“Say: “O Mankind! I am the Messenger of Allah sent unto you all, to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth: there is no god but He: it is He That giveth both life and death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the Unlettered Prophet, who believes in Allah and His words: follow him that ye may be guided.” The Quran, 7:158

The verse, to me, is a glorious and complete statement of faith.

So, what about Jesus mission? Again, the Quran is also very clear on this point. Jesus, in the Quran, was a prophet sent to the Children of Israel:

“And when Jesus son of Mary said: O Children of Israel! Lo! I am the messenger of Allah unto you, confirming that which was (revealed) before me in the Torah, and bringing good tidings of a messenger who cometh after me, whose name is the Praised One. Yet when he hath come unto them with clear proofs, they say: This is mere magic.” The Quran 61:6

So, why was Jesus’ original message altered? Probably the rules governing authenticity of transmission were not strong enough. Too much reliance on the “inspiration of transmitters” and the confinement of knowledge to the elites at the Churches, suppression of dissenting voices for very long periods in the history of Christianity; all these factors contributed to the alteration of the message.

I am not saying that some of these factors were non-existent in Islamic history, but Muslim scholars, from and early stage adopted and agreed on a much more stringent rules governing transmission.

If, for example, Apostle Paul had been a Muslim, not a single word from him, about the life of the prophet or the doctrine of the faith, would have been accepted, let alone be included in the primary text, unless he explicitly said that he heard it spoken by a named companion of the Prophet who in turn said that the Prophet had said it. A vision claimed by anyone other than the Prophet himself can never be accepted as part of the religion.

Unless someone was a compatriot of the person whom he is quoting, his quotes are automatically excluded from the teachings of the religion. Only God has the authority to define religion and only his prophet has the authority and the mandate to deliver God’s message to the people.

Related Posts:

Written by Rasheed Gadir

November 2, 2007 at 1:33 am